R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. R can be considered as a different implementation of S. There are some important differences, but much code written for S runs unaltered under R.
Why are statistical programming languages important to data scientists? Please provide a specific use case for a data scientist to apply a statistical language to a data set. What are some advantages and disadvantages the R programming language has over the other main statistical programming languages (i.e. Python, SAS, SQL)?