MPM210- Unit 4 Project Management Quiz Answers 17- Ashford University.
Unit 4 Tutorials: Closing the Project INSIDE UNIT 4 The Closing Process Closing Process Evaluating Project Readiness When the Project isn’t Ready Evaluating & Reporting Project Success Project Approval Lessons Learned Warehousing Information Transferring Ownership Evaluating Project Team Celebrating Project Completion Project Management in Context Project Management in Context Project Life Cycle Review Case Study: Phase 1 Case Study: Phase 2 Case Study: Phase 3 Case Study: Phase 4 Closing Process by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED This lesson introduces the steps involved in the process of closing a process and covers the following topic: 1. Steps in the closing process 1. STEPS IN THE CLOSING PROCESS Even though this phase is called the “closing process”, it is still part of the project, so it should be included in © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 1 the schedule and the budget. 1. Determine if the Project is Ready to Close: The first step in the closing process will be the project manager determining if the project is ready to be closed. All deliverables must be ready and approved by those with sign-off authority. All work must be marked as complete, and all material resources necessary to place a deliverable into operation must be purchased. 2. Close Out Any Contracts: Once the deliverables are ready, then all contracts related to the project must be closed out. This would include any contracts with vendors, consultants, or any external resources. Any contracts related to non-person resources, such as equipment or software rental or leasing, should also be concluded. 3. Complete Required Documentation: Final modifications to all project documents must be made as described in the project governance. Project documents won’t be considered complete until all final project approvals are granted. HINT Project documents won’t be considered complete until all final project approvals have been given since work might be required that results in changes to the schedule or budget. 4. Project Approval: As with phase approvals, the project manager will need to facilitate an approval meeting and project sign-off from the sponsor and key stakeholders. 5. Complete Lessons Learned: This document will help project managers with future projects. It describes the issues, approaches, and successes of the project and outlines how each was managed so the knowledge and experience can be retained and used. 6. Warehouse Records: All records are warehoused. The final project documentation is safely stored so that it can be accessed in the future. This includes scope, schedule, and budget documents, risk and decision logs, any meeting agendas and notes, and any documentation created during the project closing process, such as the Lessons Learned. 7. Transfer Ownership: Most project deliverables will be moved into operations. The project manager will transfer ownership of the project to a hand-off person. This is often a project stakeholder or someone closely engaged with the project. If no transfer is needed, then a project closing meeting may be held to notify the team that the project is completing. 8. Evaluate & Release Team: The team as a whole should be assessed against project expectations and any organizational standards. Details about individual team members’ performance, since this is often used in annual performance reviews, should also be documented. Team members are then released to other work. HINT Team members may be needed during the closing process, especially when transferring ownership, so the project manager should be aware not to release members too early. Once these steps are complete, the project is officially closed. At this time, or perhaps before team members are released, a celebration meeting might be held so the project manager can make one final communication to the team about the success and challenges of the project. HINT Not all organizations follow the exact order of these steps. Some organization’s release members throughout the project as work is completed. STEP BY STEP 1. Determine if the project is ready to close 2. Close out any contracts 3. Complete required documentation 4. Project approval 5. Complete Lessons Learned 6. Warehouse records © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 2 7. Transfer ownership 8. Evaluate & Release team SUMMARY This lesson introduced you to the steps of the closing process of a project. Remember, items such as contracts must be closed out as well, and elements or materials may be handed off to operations. While all steps should be included for every project, some organizations vary the specific details on how each handled, such as evaluating and releasing members as his or her work is completed along the way. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 3 Evaluating Project Readiness by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, we’ll learn how a project manager evaluates project readiness, which is necessary to close a project. Specifically, you will focus on: 1. Project Readiness 2. Project Impact 1. PROJECT READINESS Project readiness is the transition between Phase Three, managing the project, and Phase Four, closing the project. Project readiness occurs when all project commitments have been fulfilled, which means: All deliverables have been created to the standards outlined in the project scope All the work is marked as complete Any resources necessary to place the deliverables into operation have been acquired If a project is not ready, then additional tasks and cost might need to occur, and the closing sequence may be delayed. Therefore, it’s critical for the project manager to be unbiased when evaluating the state of the project. A check-off sheet can help a project manager remain objective. The check-off sheet should include: 1. Project deliverables completed: This indicates that all requirements have been met and the deliverables meet or exceed the quality standards. The deliverables have been tested, or there is a plan in place to assure that the deliverables are tested before going into operation. 2. Change requests completed: Each request must be closed, and the results of the change verified. 3. High impact and high probability risks managed: Each risk has been mitigated or shifted to a low impact or low probability due to other circumstances. 4. Contracts completed: Any agreements with vendors consultants or other resource providers must be fully satisfied. 5. Deliverables are ready for sign-off: Key stakeholders must be able to review, evaluate, and sign-off on the deliverables. 6. Scope criteria from scope met: The project and its deliverables must have met any additional success criteria that were established in the scope document. TERM TO KNOW Project Readiness The process of validating that all project work has been accomplished and all deliverables have been completed to standards. 2. PROJECT IMPACT © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 4 Judging project impact, or the project’s benefit to the organization is an additional step in judging readiness. The project scope outlined these impacts, and they should be reevaluated at this stage in the project. The project manager must ask and receive answers to the following two questions: Is the project going to achieve the business impact that it is expected to once it is implemented? What is the likelihood that the benefits will be realized once the deliverables are implemented? These questions should be discussed with the project sponsor and any stakeholders or organization members responsible for implementing the deliverables. Since all individuals associated with the project know considerably more about the deliverables now than when the project began, the impact can be more clearly judged. It’s critical to ask these questions because this stage determines if the deliverables will work as intended or whether further work will be needed to reach the goals of the organization. TERM TO KNOW Project Impact The process of validating that the organization will realize the expected benefits from the project deliverables once implemented. HINT Remember that projects are ultimately judged by the value they bring to an organization, not just the successful completion of a schedule. SUMMARY In this lesson, we learned why and how a project manager evaluates a project’s readiness, such as deliverables created to the expectations and standards established. You also understand that the impact of a project is an important part of this evaluation. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. TERMS TO KNOW Project Impact The process of validating that the organization will realize the expected benefits from the project deliverables once implemented. Project Readiness The process of validating that all project work has been accomplished and all deliverables have been completed to standards. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 5 When the Project isn’t Ready by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED This lesson provides an overview of how to approach a project that is not ready to close, specifically focusing on: 1. Outstanding Issues 2. Determining Course of Action a. Close and Deliver As Is b. Extend The Project c. Close and Start a New Project d. Kill The Project 1. OUTSTANDING ISSUES In some cases, a project manager will reach the stage where scheduled tasks are complete, but the project is not ready to close due to outstanding issues. When this occurs, the project manager must document these issues and develop a plan to move the project to successful completion. Issues that might require additional work could be any of the following: Quality or performance: Deliverables may not meet the standards outlined in the project scope or by the organization. Project scope: Deliverables may not match the requirements documented in the scope. Sign offs withheld: Project sponsor or key stakeholders may not feel the project is ready. This might only be a communication issue, and in that case, the project manager should address the issue with the necessary meetings or documentation. Contracts not finalized or in dispute: All contracts must be closed prior to closing. Outstanding risks: Any risks that have not been mitigated and might continue into the operation phase would need to be addressed. The project manager cannot close the project until decisions are made about how to handle outstanding issues. If there are too many issues, the closing period of the project might add considerable time to the schedule. 2. DETERMINING COURSE OF ACTION The first decision to make is whether the closing process should start. There are several actions a project manager can take based on what is needed Close and Deliver As Is Extend The Project Close and Start a New Project Kill The Project 2a. Close and Deliver As Is If the benefit of having the deliverables, even with known issues, is greater than not having them at all, then © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 6 the project is closed and the project manager will document limitations and/or risks. Sometimes though the issues are too large or too numerous to consider immediate closing. If deliverables are not performing to quality or performance standards, or if new deliverables have emerged due to changing business conditions or changing stakeholder expectations, then the project should probably not be closed. When that occurs, there are three ways to handle a project with such significant outstanding issues. 2b. Extend the Project The project manager will prepare a schedule and budget for the work needed to address outstanding issues. Approval for the change request will be received. The project may re-enter at any of the previous phases of the project life cycle. New deliverables will likely require the project to return to the beginning phase and the scoping activity, then proceed through the following phases. Schedule Scope Plan Manage Budget EXAMPLE If a project is developing a tablet computer and a direct competitor releases a tablet with the ability to record television, then your project may need to add that feature as well. This would require a return to the scope activity. Projects are often extended when quality is critical to a product’s success, or if it’s acceptable to have a time delay if it means the deliverable meets the customer’s expectations. 2c. Close and Start a New Project In this case, the project manager would proceed with the closing process for the existing project with outstanding issues documented. A new project would then be initiated to address the outstanding issues and may or may not be handled by the same team. This choice might allow the organization to begin using the deliverable from the original project, while work continues to fix the issues with the deliverable. It is often used when the existing deliverable has value to the organization and issues can be fixed incrementally. EXAMPLE This is a good option for software projects when version releases might fix bugs or provide needed improvements. 2d. Kill the Project This path can be a difficult choice for a project manager to make. However, if they determine that a project is not ready and may never be ready under the current process, a project manager may need to recommend project termination. This might occur when deliverables do not perform as expected: In critical life or death products, such as those in the medical industry, a product that does not perform as expected and cannot be fixed should not be released at all. Industry or organization changes have made the deliverable or the project unnecessary. Placing the deliverable into operation would be too costly for the organization. A competing product or new technology has made the project’s deliverable obsolete There are safety, social, or ethical reasons about the implementation that were not known when the project began so the project must be killed. If a project is killed, the project manager must still proceed through the closing process since conditions might change in the future that allow the deliverable to be used, or just to document and archive the history of the project. TERM TO KNOW Project Termination A decision to not deliver or implement project deliverables. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 7 Should the project be closed? Yes Close and Deliver As Is: Use when the deliverables need to be implemented without delay to business No Extend Project: Use when the implementation can be delayed to ensure deliverables meet all project requirements and quality standards Close and Start New Project: Use when existing deliverables are usable in their current state and then improved upon as part of a new project Kill the Project: Use when the project fails to perform as expected and cannot be easily fixed, there are organizational or industry changes, it costs too much, competing products or technology has made the deliverable obselete, and safety, social, or ethical reasons. BIG IDEA When deciding which path to take, the project manager must consult with the project sponsor and the key stakeholders. The decision should be based on factors such as schedule and cost, the availability of funding, and the business needs of the organization. The decision should also be formally approved by the stakeholders and documented by the project manager. BRAINSTORM Can you think of a time when you were working on a project that may have fit these requirements, yet proceeded anyway? What happened? SUMMARY In this lesson, you learned a few reasons why there may be outstanding project issues identified when evaluating readiness for closing. A few of those issues include delayed sign-off and not meeting the quality or performance outlined within the scope. When a project is not ready to close, a project manager needs to determine a course of action such as extending the project or closing it with known risks. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. TERMS TO KNOW Project Termination A decision to not deliver or implement project deliverables. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 8 Evaluating & Reporting Project Success by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, we’ll learn how a project manager both evaluates and reports on a project’s success. This involves the following major steps: 1. Preparing Final Reports 2. Evaluating Project Success 1. PREPARING FINAL REPORTS The creation of a project’s final reports occurs during the closing process. These reports are compiled by the project manager with the help of those that have the knowledge and data to create them. The details in these reports are guided by organizational standards and project governance. The project manager must document the project completely before the project can be considered officially closed. The schedule and budget were monitored and managed in Phase Three. During that time, new baselines may have been established due to change requests, or the baseline from the project scoping phase was maintained throughout the project. In either case, during the closing process, the current schedule and budget are compared to the current baseline, and reports on any deviations from the baseline are documented. Final calculations, which were conducted during Phase Four, are also part of the final reports. These include: Performance statistics on tasks Reports on the quality of the deliverables How the requirements were met by the results of the project The project manager then compiles all of these reports in preparation for the Phase Four approval meeting, which we will discuss in another lesson. Since edits might be required on the materials, the reports will not be considered final until the Phase Four approvals are received. EVALUATING PROJECT SUCCESS The details in these reports allow the project manager and the audience for the reports to then evaluate the project as a whole. This is accomplished by considering the answers to the following questions: Questions to Ask When Evaluating Project Success How well did the deliverables meet the requirements Were all deliverables created to satisfaction? and the scope? Did the deliverables meet the quality standards outlined in the scope? Were there any schedule overruns? What caused the overruns? How could they be avoided in future projects? Were there any budget overruns? What caused the overruns? How could they be avoided in future projects? © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 9 HINT When conducting this evaluation process, it’s also worth noting if the schedule or the budget was unrealistic so that future projects might plan their time and cost more accurately. SUMMARY In this lesson, we learned how a project manager prepares the final reports, and how a project’s success is evaluated. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 10 Project Approval by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, we’ll discuss how a project manager organizes and facilitates the approval to close a project. Specifically, you will focus on: 1. Project Approval 2. Approval Meeting 3. Project Sign Off 1. PROJECT APPROVAL When a project is ready to close, the project manager will set up the final approval meeting. Depending on the organization, this may also be handled through a more informal sign-off procedure. Sign-off approval can occur when the project manager determines that the project is ready to close, meaning: All tasks in the schedule have been completed. All deliverables have been created and performed to the specifications, requirements, and quality standards outlined in the project scope. Final information and evaluation of the project have been prepared. Reports have been created comparing the schedule and budget to the plan baseline value. All contracts are closed out, including those with vendors, consultants, or materials agreements used by the project. All required documentation is completed as defined by the project governance. 2. APPROVAL MEETING Once these criteria have been met, the project manager can arrange the approval meeting if needed. This meeting will include the project sponsor, any key stakeholders with sign-off authority, and any operation members taking over the project’s deliverables. Sign-offs will be needed from each group. The project manager should prepare the meeting agenda and distribute it to all attendees. During the meeting, the project manager will explain: How the deliverables and requirements have been satisfied Any variances in the final schedule or budget as compared to the plan baseline The plan for transferring ownership of deliverables to those who will manage, implement, or use them 3. PROJECT SIGN OFF If all goes according to plan, the meeting will conclude with a sign-off for the project. Below is an example of a project approval. A formal project sign-off should include a signature from each stakeholder with sign-off authority. Formal Acceptance Signoff Form © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 11 Project Date: Formal Acceptance Stakeholder: Project: Acceptance of Project Deliverables and Approval of Project The project deliverables have been reviewed against the prescribed acceptance criteria. Based on these criteria, the project product is accepted: As complete: Subject to the attached conditions: Approved by: Date: Conditions of Acceptance HINT If approval is not received, then the project manager should organize any changes to the project or documentation necessary to receive approval and reschedule a new meeting. Upon project approval, the project manager can close the project using the following steps: Complete the lessons learned document. Warehouse any records associated with the project. Transfer ownership of the project to those managing the operation of deliverables. Evaluate and release the team. We’ll cover these steps in more detail in other lessons. BRAINSTORM Think about a project you would like to complete. Imagine you are the manager for this project, and ask yourself the following questions: What steps would you take to determine if the project is ready for approval? If the project is not ready for approval, what would you need to do to first? If you hold an approval meeting, what topics will you need to address? SUMMARY In this lesson, you learned the criteria needed for project approval, and that the project manager needs to arrange the project approval meeting. You now understand how to obtain sign-off on the project. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 12 Lessons Learned by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED This lesson provides an overview of documenting lessons learned including: 1. Documenting Lessons Learned 2. Communicating Lessons Learned 1. DOCUMENTING LESSONS LEARNED Lessons learned are documented during the closing process of a project. It is a shorthand description of the information gained from a current project that can assist future projects and improve the quality of the project management and deliverable creation. It is a formal document that is archived and accessed by the organization and should be available to all project managers. The information documented as lessons learned should be relevant and topical to the organization. Elements of a lessons learned document include: Red flags: Any events or issues that created stress in the project or any events that were not predicted by the management team. For lessons learned, describe these issues and note how the issues were resolved so future projects can learn from the experience and hopefully prevent the same issues from occurring. Innovative approaches: Any innovation that was used in the project and could be used in a future project. This might include innovations with the development of deliverables or innovations with project management. Critical success factors: Include factors that were critical and necessary for the project’s completion. Key risks: Only the risks that might impact future projects are documented. Document the contingencies used for these risks as well. Project deliverables: Document performance or quality issues with the deliverables and why they occurred. Suggest how it might be avoided in the future. External resources: Include external resources that were an issue for the project. Recommendations can be provided on future projects. Project failure: If a project failed, document why this occurred. Be thorough because even a failed project has value if it helps avoid failure for future projects. To obtain these lessons learned, a project manager must cooperate with the team and the stakeholders. Interviews, surveys, and questionnaires are all excellent methods to gather the necessary details. When documenting the list of lessons learned, a project manager must use discretion. Often internal or confidential information is expressed in these lessons. A project manager should also be sensitive when noting individuals in the lessons learned document. TERM TO KNOW Lessons Learned © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 13 Information gained from a current project that can be used in future projects to improve overall quality of project management. 2. COMMUNICATING LESSONS LEARNED Once the Lessons Learned have been gathered, they must be communicated to the organization. If possible, the best method to communicate the lessons learned is with a team meeting. This way, everyone receives information in the same manner. Questions can be asked, and the project manager can provide answers to the team as a whole. STEP BY STEP 1. Plan the meeting and prepare the lessons learned document for distribution. Create a draft version of the document. 2. Get additional feedback, make changes, and finalize the document. Share the draft with key team members and gather their comments and incorporate the comments to create a final version. 3. Send final Lessons Learned to project stakeholders with sign off approval via meeting or electronically.As with a team meeting, a live presentation is best. However, if that is not possible, comments from the stakeholders should be incorporated into the lessons learned document. 4. After final review, Lessons Learned can be shared with the organization.The document can be shared with the team and also with the entire organization at this time using whatever method is commonly used. 5. Archive project documentation. The material should also be warehoused, along with the other project records. SUMMARY In this lesson, you learned how to document lessons learned and now understand that it should include elements such as red flags and innovative approaches. While red flags are included, it should not include every risk – only those key to future projects. Communicating lessons learned should be conducted within a team meeting if possible in order to answer any questions. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. TERMS TO KNOW Lessons Learned Information gained from a current project that can be used in future projects to improve overall quality of project management. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 14 Warehousing Information by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, we’ll discuss how a project manager stores project information. Specifically, you will focus on: 1. Warehousing Documents 1. WAREHOUSING DOCUMENTS It’s the project manager’s responsibility to confirm all information relevant to a project’s history has been safely archived for future reference. Most organizations require that all project information created during the project be warehoused within the organization’s archive system. This is a critical part of the closing process since it allows future projects the opportunity to review, use, and leverage this information for future development. Often the information is filed electronically using whatever methods are commonly used within the organization, allowing for the most convenient access. If an organization has a specific file naming convention for warehoused files, then this should be used by the project manager. The project manager should facilitate the storage of project information from all phases of the project life cycle. The following documentation will be warehoused: Project Scope Project Schedule Project Budget Risk logs Decision Logs Lessons Learned Change requests should be included since they may have modified the schedule or budget, as well as any information on the performance or quality expectations for the deliverables. Warehouse all information about the nature of risks and the contingencies prepared and used. HINT Remember that both the decision logs and lessons learned are created during the closing process. Some information does not need to be warehoused, or may naturally be archived as part of standard operational processes: Meeting notes and emails Individual evaluations, which are often kept confidential by human resource departments It is only after a project’s readiness has been verified– all project approvals have been gathered and all project documentation has been warehoused appropriately– that ownership of the project and the deliverables can be transferred. SUMMARY © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 15 In this lesson, you learned that warehousing documents such as the scope and risk logs are commonly filed electronically for easy access by all project managers. Most importantly, you learned why warehousing this critical information is key since it allows future projects the opportunity to review, use, and leverage this information for future development. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 16 Transferring Ownership by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, we’ll learn how to transfer ownership of a project into operations once it is complete. Specifically, you will focus on: 1. Transferring Ownership a. Individual Receiving the Transfer b. Transfer Meeting c. Follow Up After Transfer 1. TRANSFERRING OWNERSHIP Once a project is complete, a project manager will often not be involved in the operation of the project’s deliverables so the project will need to transfer to those who will be responsible for implementation. Transfer of ownership occurs when the project’s deliverables are judged as ready to be during the readiness evaluation. This transfer process helps inform the individual responsible for implementing the deliverable about any details learned during the project development process that may assist them in their work. TERM TO KNOW Transfer of Ownership The process of handing off formal control of project deliverables to an individual or group responsible for implementation 1a. Individual Receiving the Transfer It is best for a smooth transfer if, early in the project, the project manager knows the individual who will take over implementation of the deliverables. This person should be considered a key stakeholder, and the project manager should communicate with them throughout the project life cycle. This communication gives the transfer individual considerable experience with and knowledge of the project. If possible, it also helps to transfer responsibility and accountability to a single individual. Even if a group or department takes over implementation, try to identify one person who will represent that group. 1b. Transfer Meeting The project transfer should occur in a transfer meeting organized by the project manager, before which the project manager should compile the information and documentation necessary for the transfer. It’s the project manager’s responsibility to investigate how much the individual implementing the project deliverables knows about the project, then provide the information needed to fill any knowledge gaps. The project manager should review the project scope with the transfer individual during the meeting to make sure all quality and performance details are understood. In addition, the expectations of the stakeholders should be communicated, since they will continue to determine the success of the project during the implementation of the deliverables. If the transfer individual has been involved in the project, then the project manager won’t need to review the history of the project, though the individual should still be informed of any key decisions or issues they didn’t experience directly. Finally, the project manager should describe the final status of deliverables and review any outstanding issues © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 17 that still remain. Formatted like a meeting checklist, the information would appear as below. This list should be customized based on the experience of the individual implementing the deliverables: Project Deliverables Project Requirements Project stakeholders that were included in the project Outstanding issues if any exist Outstanding performance or quality issues if any exist, and Contact information for team members who will support the product during implementation. Note that they should be team members who were involved in the creation of the deliverables. 1c. Follow Up After Transfer After the transfer meeting is complete and the official handoff has occurred, the project manager should continue to check in with the individual responsible for implementation. It is not only a courtesy; this check-in might be essential for a successful implementation since the project manager has intimate knowledge of how the deliverables were produced. HINT By establishing periodic communication, either in person, email, or by other means, the project manager shows that they are attentive and proactive. If questions then arise about the deliverables, the implementation individual will feel comfortable consulting the project manager if needed. In most cases, this contact can end after an appropriate time and a period of smooth implementation has passed. THINK ABOUT IT Think about the process of developing a new car engine The design of the engine would be managed as a project. Once the design of the engine was complete and verified, the project manager would transfer the actual implementation and manufacturing of the engine to an operations individual. With this project in mind, create a checklist of topics that the project manager should cover during the transfer meeting. SUMMARY In this lesson, you learned about the transfer of project ownership. You now understand how the project manager cooperates with the individual receiving the transfer, why a transfer meeting is needed, and what should be covered at this meeting. You also know why it’s important for the project manager to follow up after the transferring project. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. TERMS TO KNOW Transfer of Ownership The process of handing off formal control of project deliverables to an individual or group responsible © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 18 for implementation. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 19 Evaluating Project Team by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, we’ll learn how a project manager evaluates the team and individual performance during the closing process. Specifically you will focus on: 1. Team Evaluation 2. Individual Evaluation 1. TEAM EVALUATION When closing a project, it’s the project manager’s responsibility to evaluate the team as a whole. This evaluation is judged against the expectations established over the course of the project. When evaluating the team as a whole, the following are some expectations to consider: Expectation Collaboration Description The ability to actively collaborate with one another. Evaluation Does the team function well when cooperating? Communication Keeping one another informed on individual accountabilities Was there an open and free flow of information about the work? Documentation Keeping project documentation up to date, including scheduled progress Was design and support documentation maintained? Was time tracking completed when needed? Was the project manager notified when tasks were delayed? Problem solving Problem solving as a group When issues arose, did the team function as a group? Did and managing project risk. only individuals solve problems? Team meeting participation Attend and contribute to project meetings Did everyone attend and contribute to the team meetings? The project manager should evaluate the team based on these expectations and any others established by the organization’s standards. 2. INDIVIDUAL EVALUATION In addition to team performance, team members must also be evaluated separately. This is an important part of the closing process because it is the time when feedback is most beneficial to someone shifting to a new project. This evaluation might also be included in an individual’s annual performance review so it might be mandatory for a project manager to complete. If it is part of the performance review, the project manager should use the performance management processes, tools, and rating definitions as used by the organization. In either case, individual team members should be evaluated against the performance expectations set by the organization and at the initiation of the project. These expectations can include the following: Expectation © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Evaluation Page 20 Assigned tasks Did the individual complete the work? Assigned deliverables Did the individual develop and handle deliverables in adherence to the project scope’s quality and performance standards? Established timelines Did the individual meet their estimates for assigned work? Additional quality standards Did the individual, such as a team lead, perform the additional duties expected in his/her position? Any other activities involved in managing the project Were there any areas where an individual’s efforts either helped or harmed the project? When evaluating an individual’s performance, be sure to use criteria that is specific and measurable. A project manager should remember to include positive feedback as well as negative feedback when needed. Also, it is best to meet in person with the individual when delivering the evaluation. HINT Individuals should also be given the opportunity to evaluate their own performance. This helps a project manager see how individuals believe they are performing as compared to management’s evaluation and may provide information and details of which the project manager is unaware. The team can be released to other work only after the following has occurred: The project’s readiness is verified All project approvals are given All information has been warehoused Team and all individual members have been evaluated SUMMARY In this lesson, you learned how a project manager evaluates both a team and an individual. You also learned how to determine when it’s time to release the team to other projects. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 21 Celebrating Project Completion by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, we’ll talk about why it’s important to celebrate a project once it’s complete. Specifically, you will focus on: 1. Celebrating Project Completion 1. CELEBRATING PROJECT COMPLETION When a project is completed, the project manager should provide the team with an opportunity to celebrate this accomplishment. While it’s true that everyone is ready to move on to other work, it’s necessary to take the time and relax before another project begins. Team members might shift to other projects or assignments whenever their individual work is complete, so organizing a team celebration may be difficult. However, it’s still worth the effort because a celebration can be an opportunity for the project manager to provide the following: Reflection with the team on the work that was involved Opportunity for everyone to recognize the time and commitment involved in creating a team Acknowledgment of the efforts of individual team members Sharing of lessons learned A project celebration can take many forms, some of which include a team meeting, lunch, dinner, picnic, or another fun activity. What’s important is that the celebration is a time in which the project manager thanks the team for its contribution, and praises the team for the work it has done. If possible, the project sponsor and stakeholders should be included in the celebration, as they are also members of the team. Furthermore, the rest of the team would be pleased to receive the sponsor and stakeholders’ acknowledgment and gratitude for helping to meet their goals. HINT A project manager should be careful when praising individual team members and sharing lessons learned during the project celebrations. It’s critical that the spirit of teamwork is maintained, even during the end of a project celebration; however, if there are people whose efforts significantly impacted the project in a positive way, this is the time to reward them. The project manager should be sensitive to the fact that some lessons learned are about the weaknesses of a project, which might damper the celebration. This is a time for enjoyment; gaining knowledge from the project’s experience can occur on a different day. SUMMARY In this lesson, you learned why project celebrations are an important part of the closing process. It’s important to acknowledge the hard work of everyone on the team. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 22 Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 23 Project Management in Context by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, we’ll review some of the ways project management is used in real-world projects. Specifically, you will focus on: 1. Common Areas for Project Management 2. Customizing the Approach 1. COMMON AREAS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT Once you’re familiar with the process of project management, it’s easy to see how it can be used in so many industries and situations. Business: Every day, business around the world upgrade their technology and use project management to help the process go smoothly and quickly. When a business upgrades their phone system, the project manager must work with the phone system vendor, the voicemail developers, and coordinate the installation of equipment. Research and development: In this industry, there has been considerable movement of late to coordinate multiple research efforts so that information can be shared among different groups. Project managers will help manage those groups using the most powerful tool they have in their skill set: their ability to communicate clearly and concisely about the work to leverage what is learned. Software and technology: This industry, in particular, relies heavily on project management. Tablet computers have become common in all ways of life and were developed using the management methods that we’ve discussed. Product Development: The development of most products requires a design and a prototype before implementation. A car’s engine must be designed and tested in the field before it can be manufactured in mass and placed in cars. Project managers oversee this work, keeping everyone on task to a common goal. Event Planning: Consider all the planning and management that goes into events such as sales conferences. Project managers work with hotels and conference centers, help manage the software that handles the sign-ups, and may even organize the appearance of speakers. Entertainment: In the movie industry, project managers are known as producers, but their responsibilities are nearly identical. They are responsible for the budget, schedule, and scope of the project, even while managing or delegating work to the creative groups responsible for the latest blockbuster. Construction/Public Works: These industries have used project managers for a long time. If a new hydroelectric dam is going up in your area, there is at least one, and likely many, project managers helping it meet the quality and performance standards outlined in the project scope. Community/Non-Profit: These groups also rely on project managers. A Habitat for Humanity house will have a general contractor, which is just another term for a project manager. Everyday Life: Even in a household, we use many of the skills and tools of a project manager. A remodel of a bathroom requires a budget, schedule, and clear idea of what the people in the house want from that © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 24 bathroom. The work will need to be managed toward those goals, which is the role of a project manager. 2. CUSTOMIZING THE APPROACH Now that we’ve covered quite a few of the common areas where project managers work, you probably understand that project managers must customize their approaches to fit the situations in which they work. A project management process might vary by: Industry Organization size Project size Level of authority Project complexity EXAMPLE Iterative development, which was discussed in another lesson, relies on greater communication between workers, especially at the end of an iteration cycle. If the organization is large with geographically separated workers, this can be more challenging. It can certainly work, but the project manager might need to combine more elements of phase-based development into the iterative process for the project to succeed. EXAMPLE If a project manager is working in an industry with high risks, such as nuclear power, the scoping and planning phase will involve a much larger set of stakeholders. Additionally, the project manager will place greater emphasis on the safety and performance of the final deliverables than a project manager overseeing the creation of a video game. THINK ABOUT IT What we’ve discussed in these lessons has hopefully given you a greater appreciation for the skills of a project manager, and perhaps you’ve already seen places where these skills can be used in your work and personal life. In your industry, what special circumstances might a project manager need to be prepared for? SUMMARY In this lesson, you reviewed some of the common areas for project management. You also learned what might make a project manager vary his or her approach. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 25 Project Life Cycle Review by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, you’ll learn about the project life cycle and the role of the project manager in each phase of the project. Specifically, you will focus on: 1. Project Life Cycle Review a. Phase 1: Beginning a Project b. Phase 2: Planning a Project c. Phase 3: Managing a Project d. Phase 4: Closing a Project 1. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE REVIEW A project manager must always keep the final goals of the project in mind, and each phase of a project is a necessary step in a project’s progress. The sequence of phases is known as the project life cycle; the end result of this life cycle will be the project deliverables, which are the goal of the project. The project manager will lead the project through four phases: Project Life Cycle Phase 1: Beginning a Project Phase 2: Planning a Project Phase 3: Managing a Project Phase 4: Closing a Project You’ll take a closer look at these phases and the steps they involve. 1a. Phase One: Beginning a Project In this phase, it’s the project manager’s responsibility to identify the stakeholders and gather their expectations. This is a critical part of the project manager’s role, as all future work on a project will be defined by the expectation set in this phase. Once these expectations have been gathered, they will be used to define the project scope. The scope of the project will include: Phase 1 Document: Scope Goals and objectives Consider what the project hopes to accomplish and what problem will the project solve Deliverables The project manager must clearly identify all deliverables, or costly changes will occur later in the project. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 26 Requirements This is where the details about the deliverables and how they will perform are documented in the requirements. Assumptions Every project makes assumptions about future work, and these should be documented Estimates The project manager creates rough estimates for the schedule, budget, and the resources needed to accomplish the work. Risks Risk management begins in this phase; any risks that may impact the project in a negative way should be documented. Project governance With each project, there are organizational structures, levels of authority, and methods for approval of work stages and deliverables. The project manager must document this governance during phase one so future team members understand each process. 1b. Phase Two: Planning a Project In this phase, the project manager will use the material and information from Phase One to create the documents that describe how work will proceed, who will do the work, and how much it will cost. The project manager should create the following documents: Phase 2 Documents Work This describes the activities and tasks and the sequence in which they must occur to finally breakdown create the project deliverables. structure (WBS) Project schedule Using the work breakdown structure, the project manager constructs a detailed schedule that outlines the tasks, assigns team members to the tasks, and shows the effort and time needed to complete the work. If tasks must be completed in a specific sequence, then they are documented as dependencies in the schedule. The project manager must cooperate with the team members to establish estimates for every task. Resource plan This includes both the person and non-person resources needed to create the project deliverables. Project budget This should include all the materials and personnel needed to complete the project successfully. The project manager is responsible for completing the project within this budget. Risk management plan If a risk has a high enough impact or a high enough probability of occurring, the project manager should define and document contingencies to address the risk. Communication This defines how the information will flow between different members of the project team, plan and how stakeholders can provide the necessary feedback on the project’s activity. The team is also assembled during this phase. Based on the requirements and the needs of the schedule, the project manager should confirm that all necessary skills are provided by the team. If skill gaps exist, then the project manager should plan to fill those gaps with different team members, new hires, or outside resources. 1c. Phase Three: Managing a Project In this phase, the project manager oversees the activities and tasks as outlined in the schedule. A project manager will: Phase 3 Activities Monitor and manage tasks Monitors the completion of those tasks and the quality of the results. Communicating While work progresses, the project manager must constantly communicate the status of the © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 27 progress Change management Risk management work with stakeholders and team members. Status reports will help provide stakeholders with this information, but all available methods of communication can be used by a project manager. This is when schedules, budgets, or the quality of work deviates from the plan baselines, and the project manager must create plans to resolve the issue. If changes to the schedule, budget, or scope are required by this work, the project manager must also create and receive approval for change requests from the key stakeholders. This occurs throughout the project, but a majority of the issues arise during this phase. Risks must be documented and classified according to the risk matrix, and contingencies must be in place for any high impact or a high probability risk. The project manager is responsible for overseeing the mitigations of any issues that occur. Individual/team People are the key to a successful project, so the project manager must continually management manage individual and team performance. Communication is key, and a project manager should confirm all team members know the goals of their work and the consequences if those goals are not met. The project manager should always remember to praise people for the high quality work that they produce. 1d. Phase Four: Closing a Project Once all scheduled tasks are complete and all deliverables are created or acquired, the project manager will begin closing the project. This involves the following steps: Phase 4 Steps Decision to close All deliverables must be verified against the requirements and quality standards determined in the planning phase and the project scope. Document lessons learned The lessons learned throughout the project must be documented; the project manager compiles both positive and negative experiences. These reports are archived so future projects and their managers can learn from the successes and the difficulties. Transfer The ownership of the project’s deliverables and any knowledge needed for their ownership/knowledge operation is then transferred to the individual who will handle their implementation. Warehouse project information All project information necessary for future reference should be warehoused. The history of other projects is a powerful tool when defining a new project, so a project manager should help preserve this information. THINK ABOUT IT Have you had experience with any of these phases, from either the perspective of a project manager or a team member? If so: What challenges, if any, arose during this phase? What did you or the team do to overcome these challenges? If not: What challenges do you think could occur during one of these phases? What are some possible solutions? SUMMARY In this lesson, you reviewed the four basic phases of a project: beginning the project, planning the project, managing the project, and closing the project. Phase 1 involves identifying the stakeholders and Phase 2 is when the WBS is brought in. Change and risk management is the focus of Phase 3, and the transfer of ownership/knowledge is Phase 4. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 28 © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 29 Case Study: Phase 1 by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED In this lesson, you’ll discuss a case study for a real-world project. You’ll go through all four phases of the project life cycle, covering one each in the lesson. This tutorial will focus on Phase One of the project life cycle, beginning the project, through a case study on building an energy efficient house, specifically demonstrating: 1. Phase One: Beginning a Project a. Identify Stakeholders and Expectations b. Define Project Scope 1. PHASE ONE: BEGINNING A PROJECT The case study that you’ll be using is the development and construction of a highly energy efficient house for a couple. The couple wishes to move out of their larger home, and into a smaller place to save money. The general contractor for home construction is actually a project manager by another name, so you’ll refer to this individual as a project manager throughout these lessons. Here are the steps in the context of this project. 1a. Identify Stakeholders and Expectations If you recall, the initial step in Phase One will be identifying the stakeholders and gathering their expectations. This is the project manager’s responsibility. Stakeholders Stakeholder Expectations The couple building the house will be The homeowners, architect, and project manager work closely to the key stakeholders for the project define those expectations. The homeowners often discuss in general terms, what they want. The architect should be considered a stakeholder since this is an energy The architect and project manager provide the knowledge and the efficient house expertise to make those expectations realistic. 1b. Define Project Scope The next step is defining the scope of the project, which includes: Project Scope Goals and objectives In this case, the homeowners wish to take advantage of modern construction methods and materials to create an energy efficient home. However, they don’t want to spend too much money adding those improvements. One goal for this project will be to create a home that is above average in energy efficiency but does not cost more than 15% over the cost of an average home. Deliverables The project manager must define the project deliverables, which for this project, will be the house. Requirements These flow from the expectations, goals, and objectives that the homeowners and © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 30 the architect have for the home, and must be documented. For example, say that the homeowners want to make greater use of solar energy from the sun while still keeping the cost of the home down. The architect might suggest that solar panels shouldn’t be used since they exceed the budget. The house can instead have the majority of its windows on the south side as these windows will receive sun during winter to help heat the home. If the homeowners agree, the suggestion is documented by the project manager as a requirement for the home. Assumptions These are documented next, as they help define what is expected to happen in the future and how that impacts the project. One assumption for this project might be that more efficient heating systems will be on the market and ready for installation by the time the house is built. If this assumption turns out to false, the project will need to be changed. Estimates These must be made for the schedule and the budget of the home. Since the homeowners in this project wish to remain 15% above the cost of an average home, the project manager could research the cost of an average home, then add 15% to reach the desired budget. The project manager could use similar construction projects to create a timeline for the work and possible move-in day. Risks One possible risk for this project would be if the architect warns the project manager that, in previous projects when the temperature increased in the summer, the greater amount of windows on the south side caused the home to overheat. A contingency that might be put in place to handle this risk could be the installation of overhangs that shield the southern windows in summer. The risk and its contingency should be documented by the project manager. Project Governance The governance is a documented list. The project manager decides on the methods that will be used to manage the project. In this case, the phase-based method would be used since the construction of a home is very sequential, with clear dependencies and well-defined requirements. In this house project, any change request for the home must be approved by the homeowners and the architect before the project can be changed. The architect must also approve all work at the end of each phase before the project can proceed to the next phase. From this information, the project manager then facilitates the creation of the project scope documents, including any supporting material to help to find the project scope. In this project, the supporting material would be: Blueprints for the home The list of materials approved for use in an energy efficient home. Once these documents are complete, the project manager presents them to the homeowners and the architect for their approval. When approval is received, the project can move on to the next phase. CASE STUDY: BUILDING AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE Phase 1: Beginning a Project Phase 2: Planning a Project Phase 3: Managing a Project Phase 4: Closing a Project © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 31 Identify Stakeholders & Gather Expectations Define the Project Scope Goals and Objectives Deliverables Requirements Assumptions Estimates Risks Governance SUMMARY In this lesson, you used a real-world case study to walk through phase one , the beginning of a project. Project governance is a documented list of changes. You now understand how a project might look in this first phase. Source: This work adapted from Sophia Author Jeff Carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 32 Case Study: Phase 2 by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED This tutorial will focus on Phase Two of the project life cycle, planning the project, through a case study on building an energy efficient house, specifically demonstrating: 1. Phase Two: Planning a Project a. Work Breakdown Schedule b. Project Schedule c. Resource Plan d. Project Budget e. Risk Management Plan f. Communication Plan g. Decision Log 1. PHASE TWO: PLANNING A PROJECT As a reminder, the case study we’re using is the development and construction of an energy-efficient home for a couple. Once the stakeholders have been identified and the project scope documented in Phase One, it’s time to create the various plans that will help a project manager oversee the project. 1a. Work Breakdown Structure In this step, we will use the project scope to define the work breakdown structure (WBS). For this project, we must identify the major activities and the sequence in which they must be completed in order to produce the deliverable, which is an energy-efficient house. The major activities in this house construction are: Create the Foundation Build the External Structure Install the Internal System Activities in a WBS are often given whole numbers such as 1.0, 2.0, etc. Then, under each activity, we would document the major tasks. Tasks in the WBS are numbered based on the activity they fall under. Activities 1.0 Create the Foundation 2.0 Build the External Structure 2.1 Frame Walls 2.2 Spray Foam Insulation Inside 2.3 Install Insulated Foamboard Outside 3.0 Install the Internal System Let’s look further at the second activity, building the external structure. In order to be energy-efficient, the home must have well-insulated walls in the external structure. Under this activity, there would be the following tasks such as frame walls, spray foam insulation inside, and install insulated foam board outside. Note how © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 33 these tasks would then be numbered 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3, which associate them with the second activity. All the activities are documented and tasks in this manner. Once the WBS is created, work begins on the remaining plan documents. 1b. Project Schedule The project manager takes all the activities and tasks from the WBS and places them in a schedule that outlines how long the project will take. When one task must be completed before another can start, this is known as a dependency. All dependencies must be documented in the schedule. For example, framing must be completed before the drywall can be placed onto the walls, so this is noted in the schedule. Project Schedule Frame Walls Randall 10 days Spray Foam Insulation Inside Myer 2 days Install Insulated Foamboard on Outside Ali 3 days Drywall Rhonda 7 days This helps a project manager plan when resources must be available to work on specific days. The project manager also assigns people as resources to each task, then gathers estimates from that personnel on the time or effort needed to complete the work. Once the estimates are in the schedule and the schedule is complete, the project manager baselines the schedule. 1c. Resource Plan Person resources that are used in the schedule must be documented in a resource plan. Non-person resources, such as the high efficiency heat pump that will be used to warm the house, must also be documented in the resource plan. The project manager must make sure all tasks and deliverables can be handled by the resources available. If not, the project manager must procure the necessary resources. 1d. Project budget Using the schedule and the resource plan, the project manager can then construct the budget. The budget should include: Real project costs that are paid for out of the project budget Overhead costs paid for by the organization Person and non-person resources that will be used for the project. For this house project, there are no overhead costs to include. From Phase One, you know that the homeowners wish their project budget to be no greater than 15% more than the average house. This is the stage where that goal is checked against the reality of the actual project budget. If the actual budget is too high then reductions in the scope may need to occur. The budget for this project might look like this: Person Non-Person Create the Foundation $17,000 $6,000 Build the External Structure $27,000 $32,000 © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 34 Install the Internal Systems $52,000 $31,000 Sub Total $96,000 $69,000 Total $165,000 Target $160,000 Difference -$5,000 Here we can see that the budget for this project was too high, so the project manager requested a change to different kitchen cabinets to lower the price. The homeowners and the architect approved the change request, and the project scope was changed. 1e. Risk Management Plan The risk management plan is also documented during this phase. Each risk is categorized using the risk matrix, which identifies the risk along two axes: The probability that the risk will occur The impact the risk will have on the project. On each axis, risks are given a value of high, medium, or low. Any risk with a high probability or high impact rating must have a contingency documented in the risk management plan. The contingency should describe the actions that will be taken if the risk triggers. The risk matrix for this project might look like this: Probability Low Medium High Low Impact Medium High Homeowner Changes As you can see, one risk in this project would be changes made to the project by the homeowners after major work has occurred. This risk has a medium probability with a high impact, so it needs a contingency documented. The project manager chooses to lower the chance of the risk by adding tasks to the schedule, including the creation of multiple prototypes (both electronic and physical) for the homeowners to review. 1f. Communication plan Communication is a key skill for a project manager, and all available methods should be used. In this project, the architect and the homeowners will be communicating often. However, the project manager should also make sure that both of those stakeholders are aware of the work progressing on the project and any issues encountered during the work. The stakeholders must be immediately notified of any schedule or budget overruns. For this project, the project manager sets up a simple online version of the schedule on which the homeowners can check and provide feedback at any time. The project manager must still make sure that email and phone calls are another methods for stakeholder feedback. 1g. Decision Log To document the history of a project, a decision log is kept of all changes, including the change to kitchen cabinets noted earlier. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 35 This log will prove helpful should any disagreements over decisions arise later in the project. Once these planning documents are created, the project manager presents them to the homeowners and the architect for approval. When approval is granted, the project can move on to phase three, managing the work. CASE STUDY: BUILDING AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE Phase 1: Beginning a Project Phase 2: Planning a Project Phase 3: Managing a Project Phase 4: Closing a Project Planning Documents Work Breakdown Schedule Project Schedule Resource Plan Project Budget Risk Management Communication Plan Decision Log SUMMARY This tutorial discussed a case study: phase 2 Planning the Project and covered areas such as a risk matrix and decision log. Now you know that a project manager takes all the activities and tasks from the WBS and places them in a project schedule. Source: this work is adapted from sophia author jeff carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 36 Case Study: Phase 3 by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED This tutorial will focus on Phase Three of the project life cycle, managing the project, through a case study on building an energy efficient house, specifically demonstrating: 1. Phase Three: Managing a Project a. Kick Off Meeting b. Communication c. Monitorying Time and Effort d. Risk and Change Management e. Individual and Team Performance 1. PHASE THREE: MANAGING A PROJECT The case study used for this tutorial is the development and construction of an energy efficient house for a couple. Once the planning phase is complete, it’s time to put the plans into effect and begin the work of creating the project deliverables. 1a. Kick-Off Meeting To make sure everyone understands the work involved in the home construction, the project manager organizes a kick-off meeting at the building site. The architect, the homeowners, and the leads for the construction crews attend. At the meeting, the project manager leads the group through the plans created during the planning phase, presenting the crew leaders with an accountability statement outlining the expectations for their work. The communication plan is also reviewed during the meeting. 1b. Communication Throughout the house construction, the project manager will communicate often with all levels of the construction crews, the homeowners, and the architect. All available methods of communication should be used. Methods of Communication Email Email updates are sent every day to the stakeholders, detailing the progress made on the home and alerting the stakeholders of any issues that were encountered. Website The project manager may create a website where the schedule can be viewed and where the homeowners can provide feedback on the work. Meetings Phone calls, in-person meetings, and video conferencing from the building site are used to communicate about the project with the architect. It’s the project manager’s responsibility to make sure every team member is aware of the communications that should be used. The project manager should also use these communication methods to set a strong example. The project manager will also formally communicate project progress with the homeowners and the architect through weekly status updates. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 37 These weekly status reports contain updates on: Schedule Budget Deliverable Any issues with these items are highlighted in red, as shown below. Weekly Status Report Schedule Planned Actual On Target 70% Complete 70% Complete Budget Planned Actual On Target 70% Spent 68% Spent Activity/Task Last Period Status Install Kitchen Cabinets 100% Install Tile Floor 85% Risk Issue Overheating experienced in dining room Contingency Installing tile instead of wood floor 1c. Monitoring Time and Effort To provide detail for the status report, the project manager closely monitors the project’s schedule and budget. For each task and individual working on the task, it’s important for the project manager to track the percent of the work complete and the actual time and effort already put into the task. The schedule and the budget are updated based on this information. Monitoring Time and Effort on a Task Task Rough In Electrical Percent Complete 80% Actual Time and Effort 2 of 3 days complete The project manager also oversees the quality of the work. In our project, it is noted that the wrong type of shower head was installed, which would result in the homeowners using more water. The project manager would discuss with the crew, and the shower head would be changed. Without this quality review, the homeowners might have been the ones to discover the problem, leading to frustration with the team. 1d. Risk and Change Management In addition to monitoring the schedule and budget, the project manager actively manages risks during this phase. All risks are categorized using the risk matrix and are evaluated based on the likelihood they would occur and the impact on the project if they did occur. Probability Low Medium High Low © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 38 Impact Medium Summer Overheating High Homeowner Changes One possible risk we mentioned in this project was the danger of the house becoming too hot in summer due to the number of windows used to gather solar heat. After the installation of the windows, this risk is triggered as the crew finds the house becoming too warm. The architects adjust contingency for this risk. Tile should be installed in some areas to absorb the heat and release it more slowly. However, any change this large to the project scope needs approval from the homeowners. Change management is the project manager’s responsibility, so a change request is prepared and submitted to the homeowners and architect for approval. The change request should describe: The issue The recommendation for addressing the issue The impacts to the schedule and budget When the homeowners review the material and agree to make the change, the project manager then schedules the tasks. Change Request Issue Overheating experienced in dining room Change Install tile instead of wood floor. Schedule 1 day delay Budget Additional $500 1e. Individual/Team Management While overseeing the work, the project manager continues to communicate with all individuals in the project. When team members suggest ways to save money for the homeowners or provide more energy efficiency, the project manager praises their efforts and recognizes their work during the daily progress meetings. Feedback is also shared from the homeowners and the architect with the project team. This motivates the team since they understand that their efforts are appreciated. As a result, the house is finished within the budget and schedule, approved by the homeowners, and ready to move on to Phase Four, closing the project. CASE STUDY: BUILDING AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE Phase 1: Beginning a Project Phase 2: Planning a Project Phase 3: Managing a Project Phase 4: Closing a Project © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 39 Managing the Project Kick Off Meeting Communication Monitoring Time and Effort Risk and Change Management Individual and Team Performance SUMMARY This tutorial demonstrated a case study phase three: managing the project, which includes the communication process and risk management. Source: this work is adapted from sophia author jeff carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 40 Case Study: Phase 4 by Sophia Tutorial WHAT’S COVERED This tutorial will focus on Phase Four of the project life cycle, closing the project, through a case study on building an energy efficient house, specifically demonstrating: 1. Phase Four: Closing the Project a. Project Readiness b. Contracts Closed c. Final Documentation d. Project Approval e. Ownership Transfer f. Information Warehousing g. Lessons Learned h. Individual and Team Evaluations 1. PHASE 4: CLOSING THE PROJECT The case study used today is the development and construction of an energy efficient house for a couple. Once all scheduled tasks are complete and the deliverable has been created, which in this case is the home for the couple, the managing phase is complete. Then it is time for the project manager to close the project. 1a. Project Readiness The first step in the closing process is verifying that the project is ready to close. In this case, the project manager can facilitate the final inspections that must occur before a house is considered ready for occupancy. The project manager schedules these walkthroughs, and once the final inspection is given, the project closing process can continue. 1b. Contracts Closed All contracts must be paid in full and marked closed during this process. Each subcontractor must be paid, and the amounts tallied in the actual budget numbers. The budget for the energy efficient house finished within the homeowner’s target value of 15% above an average house. 1c. Final Documentation The project manager then completes the final documentation required by the project governance. For this project, a final status report is given to the architect and the homeowners, which details: Final schedule Budget numbers Any changes made to the house since the original plan EXAMPLE Recall that a tile floor was substituted for a wood floor, so this change is noted in the final report. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 41 1d. Project Approval The project must then be approved by the stakeholders. A meeting at the home is arranged for the project to be approved by the stakeholders – the architect and homeowners. They walk through each room of the house, discussing any changes. During this time, the knowledge of the project and the operation of the home is explained in full to the homeowners. EXAMPLE This house is equipped with a system to monitor all energy usage. So the project manager arranges a demonstration of the various features of the system. The homeowners are pleased, the architect is satisfied, and the project is approved. 1e. Ownership Transfer In other projects, this is the stage when the operation of the deliverable is transferred to the person handling the implementation or operation of the project. In this project, the keys are handed over to the homeowners, who can then move into their place. 1f. Information Warehousing The project manager must make sure to warehouse any project information that will be helpful for future projects. The project manager hopes to work on more energy efficient houses in the future. Any ideas and decisions related to the house’s operation are electronically saved on the company’s servers. 1g. Lessons Learned Final meetings are arranged with each of the team leads and the architect to document the lessons learned on the project. Any information gained from the project that can be used to improve the quality of future projects or aid other project managers is documented. EXAMPLE The project manager learns from the insulation contractor about the various issues encountered with the roofing insulation for the high cathedral ceilings in the project. This is recorded so these issues can be avoided in the future. 1h. Individual and Team Evaluations The project manager thanks the team leads and releases them from the project, providing each of the team leads with a performance evaluation. Both individual and team performances are evaluated. In the case of other projects, these performance evaluations might be used in annual performance reviews. BRAINSTORM Now that you’ve learned about all four project phases in a real-world context, take a few moments to reflect: You learned in an earlier lesson that certain setbacks could kill a project. During which phase should a project manager prepare for these setbacks? Think about a time when you had to rely on your communication skills. How did open communication help the project? How might a lack of communication hurt it? Aside from their use in performance evaluations, why are individual work and teamwork equally important in a project’s life cycle? CASE STUDY: BUILDING AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE Phase 1: Beginning a Project Phase 2: Planning a Project Phase 3: Managing a Project Phase 4: Closing a Project © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 42 Closing the Project Project Readiness Contracts Closed Final Documentation Project Approval Ownership Transfer Information Warehousing Lessons Learned Individual and Team Evaluations SUMMARY This tutorial demonstrated a case study: phase four, closing the project to give you a real-world sense of what this stage would look like in real life. Lessons learned are warehoused and individual performances are evaluated in this stage. Source: this work is adapted from sophia author jeff carroll. © 2019 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. Page 43 Unit 4 Challenge 1 Project Management 1)To get a project closed, Selena reviewed the project checklist and realized while it seemed the project was changing a lot, the only real deliverable left was the customized training manual and class. She determined the project was ready to close. Based on the current situation of Selena’s project, select the next two steps below that she will perform in the closing process. a) Complete required documentation according to governance, then gain approval. b) Gain approval, then complete Lessons Learned. c) Close out any contracts, then complete required documentation according to governance. d) Close out any contracts, then complete Lessons Learned. 2) During a project closing, problems with readiness or impact are evaluated. Which of the following project issues below is an issue with readiness? a) Some citizens are upset that historic buildings were demolished to build the new green space. b) Picnic tables for the pavilions need to be delivered and installed. c) Some stakeholders feel having a playground in the park is dangerous. d) Local groups thought the park would include a shelter that could be reserved for events. 3) An artist was commissioned to create original statues and art pieces for display at different points of the walking trails at the local park. The artist planned on creating some controversial pieces and Carson, the project manager, would need more time to work with him on agreeing to new artistic designs. Which of the following descriptions corresponds with the “Close and Deliver As Is” path? a) Carson decides to give the artist two more months to finish the pieces. He moves the green space opening date to accommodate the artist. b) Carson decides to close the project and not continue in any way. c) Carson decides to close the current project. He scopes the deliverables related to the artist in a separate scope document. d) Carson decides to close the current project. The green space will open on time without any art installations. 4) Gus, a project manager, had consistently monitored the schedule __________ throughout Phase Three of the project and should use this information, along with a four-day change in the schedule, to prepare the final reports needed to close the project. a) b) c) d) Impact Reports Risks Baseline 5) Which of the following occurs during the project approval meeting? a) b) c) d) Lessons learned are shared with the project sponsor. A formal approval meeting is required for all projects. Team evaluations are submitted for approval. Work needed to transition the project is reviewed. 6) Which of the following is an example of an innovative approach that would be documented in the Lessons Learned? a) Verifying local park safety ordinances during the planning phase b) Communicating with the project sponsor when issues arose during the project c) Noting the plant nursery used for this project should not be used in future projects d) Selecting water-efficient plants to reduce the amount of irrigation required 7) How should the Lessons Learned from a project be communicated? a) b) c) d) Prepare an initial draft for team members to review. Determine key points at the project approval meeting. Discuss with the project sponsor and stakeholders before creating final version. Email the final version to the project team but not the stakeholders. 8) What is the primary purpose of warehousing the final project documentation? a) To answer questions from stakeholders about the project closure b) To allow other project managers to access past project information as needed c) To facilitate the transfer of ownership d) To achieve regulatory compliance 9) What does the project manager do to prepare for and conduct the transfer? a) Invite the stakeholders to the transfer meeting. b) Assign the transfer process to one of the team members. c) Determine the deliverables that need to be completed. d) Identify what the person taking responsibility for the project knows about the project. 10) Which of the following expectation should be included in an evaluation of the project team? a) Tested deliverable after implementation to check for any issues b) Meet expected participation levels in project meetings. c) Complete assigned deliverable according to specifications. d) Complete assigned deliverable according to specifications. 11) What is the main benefit of celebrating project completion? a) The celebration gives the project manager an opportunity to acknowledge and commend everyone for their efforts. b) The celebration is used to award bonuses to team members who performed in an outstanding manner. c) The celebration gives the team members the opportunity to say goodbye to the project manager. d) The celebration needs to happen before anyone can move forward onto other projects. Unit 2 Challenge Project Management 1) Which of the following is an example of a research and development project? a) Building a new wing on a hospital b) Managing proposal development to fund an investigation into bee population decline c) Updating spreadsheet software used by college professors d) Developing software that tracks visits to a website 2) Which of the following is a key activity found in Phase 2 of the project? a) Documented the requirements for the new feature on the deliverable. b) Worked within the current project and obtained approval from the project sponsor to make changes to the deliverable design. c) Began developing the schedule for the new project to handle a deliverable feature. d) Closed the current project as all of the project contracts had been finalized. 3) Which of the following activities is NOT a part of the project’s Phase 1? a) Identification of the project manager b) Listing deliverables c) Evaluating the project team’s performance d) Determining stakeholders’ expectations 4) Which of the following is NOT an example of a project resource? a) The project team b) Computers c) The project IT staff d) Stakeholders 5) Which of the following is a meeting that is held at the beginning of Phase 3 to ensure that everyone understands the work involved? a) Risk management meeting b) Project governance meeting c) Project kick-off meeting d) Stakeholder expectation meeting 6) Once a project is ready to close, what is the next step in the closing process? a) Closing all contracts used during the project b) Updating the project budget c) Gaining the sign-off of the project sponsor d) Warehousing project information